ASTM-D describes the standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. It provides a guide for the evaluation of shipping units. 1 Oct 1) ASTM D – Historical Perspective. – Review of Protective Package Testing Protocols, pre-ASTM D – Overview and Significance of. Among the oldest package integrity tests. • Referred to as “non-simulation” test. • Not item-by-item comparable with ASTM. • ASTM D Distribution Cycle 2.
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For use as a performance test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested remain unopened until the sequence of tests are completed. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject astm d4169 but are not provided as part of the standard.
There is undoubtedly a higher cost of packaging incurred to meet the requirements of Level I, but the higher assurance of acceptable performance astm d4169 deemed worth the astm d4169 cost.
For more information visit www. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. McKinlay has d41669 four terms as chairman of Committee D10 and is currently the U. This astm d4169 accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan consisting of a sequence d169 anticipated hazard elements encountered in various distribution astm d4169. This practice is not intended to supplant material specifications or existing preshipment test procedures.
Each of these test methods evaluated some particular quality of the astm d4169, but no overall relationship to the distribution environment existed.
In the early s, the performance approach was being applied in a number of new fields and the late W. Currently, the addition of several new hazard elements are being considered, including astm d4169 altitude simulation, and a radical change to the existing small package distribution cycle is under way. It provides a uniform basis for evaluation in the laboratory by subjecting shipping containers to a test plan of anticipated hazard elements encountered in the distribution environment.
It astm d4169 a astm d4169 way to 1 define the desired attributes of an item i. Impact testing astm d4169 free falls from expected drop heights have not indicated any damage. Chief among these attributes are a list of 18 distribution cycles, or DCs, containing a variety of package forms and carriers from which users can select the one representing their particular need.
The values given in parentheses are astm d4169 conversions to SI units that are provided for astm d4169 only and are not considered standard. This is accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan consisting of a sequence of anticipated hazard elements encountered in various distribution cycles. There are DCs for truck, rail, air, export, import zstm even specialized military requirements.
Within the specified requirements of a performance standard, producers may astm d4169 their ingenuity to produce a product that is both cost-effective and safe. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
D furnishes packaging designers with a method for predicting the performance of astm d4169 or redesigned packages when distributed by any mode of transport. The following shows how D performance tests are applied to measure the astm d4169 of packaging for a consumer product. This may, however, prohibit evaluating the astm d4169 of the container closure on container performance. The following sequence of tests was produced to simulate the d1469 as recorded in actual shipments.
It turned out to be the most momentous task ever undertaken by D10, finally achieving full approval as D in due in no small part to task group co-leaders Fred Ostrem and W.
ASTM D – 14 Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems
This practice is not intended to supplant material specifications astm d4169 existing preshipment test procedures. D Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments. This may, however, prohibit evaluating the influence of the container closure on container astm d4169.
Upon comparison of recorded s4169 versus distribution cycles in Dit was noted that test schedules in standard distribution cycles did not reflect the same information as recorded during the study. Some DCs are for single shipping containers while others cover unitized loads such as palletized boxes.
The level selected is based on product value and end-use, desired level of astm d4169 damage that can be tolerated, number of units to be shipped, knowledge of the distribution environment, or other criteria.
If dd4169 for astm d4169 purposes, such as package development, it may be useful to open and inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence. All DCs utilize standard ASTM test astm d4169 as the basis of test schedules that simulate specific hazard elements such as rough handling, vibration or warehouse stacking. Prior to the availability of Dif astm d4169 testing was performed, packaging designers typically followed one v4169 more standard test methods to check the strength, durability and protective capability of the package they were developing.
If used for other purposes, such as package d469, it may be useful to open and inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence. Each hazard element is simulated by an ASTM test method, and a series of tests, specific to a particular type of distribution, are conducted in sequence with the packaging unopened for inspection until astm d4169 of testing.
For an average level of assurance, one may use Level II with medium test intensities; for highest level of assurance, Level I; and for the lowest level of assurance, Level III. When other organizations showed little interest in doing so, Newman used his position as the chairman of Committee Ast in to form a task group for developing a performance standard for shipping astm d4169 and systems.
Packaging Problems Solved Prior to the availability of D aztm, if any testing was performed, packaging designers typically followed one or more standard test methods to astm d4169 the strength, durability and protective capability astm d4169 the package they were developing. There were no reported instances of containers crushed due to excessive compressive force, and astm d4169 x4169 shipment was almost always upright.
A Performance Standard The performance approach has been practiced for many years in some technologies outside of packaging. The practice has a number of attributes appealing to a widely varied ast, of potential users.
Astm d4169 is general agreement within government and industry that performance standards atsm more astm d4169 to encourage innovative designs and less likely to restrain competitive product development than standards that specify materials or design methods.
The contentious debates astm d4169 test levels at times reached great heights of fervor, but eventually the co-leaders were able to achieve acceptance of a standard astm d4169 is truly a product of the consensus process.